Detailed Results For The U.S. From Faunalytics’ Study Of BRIC Countries
Faunalytics recently completed a cross-national comparative study of attitudes toward farmed animals in the U.S. and the BRIC countries: Brazil, Russia, India, and China.
A summary of the comparisons between the five countries is available here. This follow-up report provides full tables of results for the U.S. It includes:
- Tables 1-6: An overall breakdown of survey responses for people from the U.S. (these can also be found in the main report, but more detail is included here);
- Tables 7-12: A breakdown of survey responses for people from the U.S. by gender;
- Tables 13-18: A breakdown of survey responses for people from the U.S. by age; and
- Tables 19-24: A breakdown of survey responses for people from the U.S. by region.
Some of the most noteworthy findings from the results for U.S. respondents include:
- Despite the concentration of animal advocates in the U.S. relative to the BRIC countries, the U.S. was only moderately pro-animal relative to the other countries surveyed. By comparison, Brazilian respondents were typically more pro-animal, whereas Indian and Chinese respondents were typically less so. Russia scored comparably to the U.S. on several items. (See main report for details comparing the countries.)
- U.S. respondents were split in their willingness to attribute animal suffering to eating meat. About a third agreed with the idea that eating meat directly contributes to animal suffering, but another third disagreed, and the rest remained neutral. This item showed less consensus than those assessing the importance of animal welfare. Thus, it appears that while many people from the U.S. are willing to say that farmed animal welfare is important, far fewer see it as their personal responsibility. This poses a challenge for advocates, who may continue to find that corporate and government lobbying will be the more successful route to positive change for animals.
- This nationally-representative U.S. sample used a consumption question to estimate that 4% of the U.S. is vegetarian or vegan in 2018. This estimate is similar to those produced by other reliable surveys (Šimčikas, 2018).
- Women in the U.S. are generally more pro-animal than men (as are women across all the surveyed countries). For instance, they are more likely to hold pro-animal attitudes and beliefs, to support a welfare reform law, and to reduce their meat consumption. Therefore, advocacy targeting women may be more successful in changing behavior.
- Older U.S. adults (particularly those aged 55+) were more likely than younger adults to have eaten most of the animal products assessed by the survey. Although, this trend could indicate that older adults consume more meat, it is unlikely because research generally shows the opposite. It is more likely to indicate that older adults eat a wider variety of products–or, put another way, that younger adults more often restrict consumption of certain animal products. However, the unusually high estimate of 10% vegans/vegetarians among respondents aged 18-24 is likely to be an anomaly resulting from the small size of that group, as noted in the table.
- Relatedly, older U.S. respondents (aged 45+) were more likely than younger ones to say that they were eating less meat than usual. This may indicate meat-related health concerns among older adults. By encouraging further reduction and substitution of healthy plant-based alternatives, advocates may reduce older adults’ consumption of animal products.
The study methodology is described in more detail in the main report. Data were collected in May and June of 2018 from a nationally representative U.S. sample of 1,184 people. The data were weighted to improve their representativeness.
For the results by demographic group, it is important to remember that small differences between groups are likely not meaningful, because they could occur by chance. Estimates of statistical significance—indicating which differences are large enough to be meaningful—are not provided in this report.
In each demographic section, we provide a rule of thumb for interpreting which differences are meaningful, which should be sufficient for most purposes. However, if exact information about significance is required, please contact Faunalytics.
Overall Results for the U.S.
The tables below show the results for all U.S. respondents.
Table 1. Beliefs about Animal Suffering in the U.S.
Table 2. Attitudes toward Farmed Animal Welfare in the U.S.
Table 3. Perceived Social Norms in the U.S.
As shown in the table above, the social norms items used in the U.S. survey referred to “Americans.” Faunalytics does not endorse this term, as the U.S. is only one of many countries in the Americas. However, because it is a common term in everyday language, it was used in this survey for clarity.
Table 4. Support for Welfare Reform in the U.S.
Table 5. Diet in the U.S.
Table 6. Diet Change in the U.S.
Results by Gender in the U.S.
The tables below show the results for U.S. respondents by gender. Note that small differences between men’s and women’s responses may not be meaningfully different. In particular, differences of less than 5% may be due to chance.
Table 7. Beliefs about Animal Suffering by Gender (U.S.)
Table 8. Attitudes toward Farmed Animal Welfare by Gender (U.S.)
Table 9. Perceived Social Norms by Gender (U.S.)
Table 10. Support for Welfare Reform by Gender (U.S.)
Table 11. Diet in the Past Year by Gender (U.S.)
Table 12. Diet Change in the Last Three Months by Gender (U.S.)
Results by Age in the U.S.
The tables below show the results for U.S. respondents by age group. Note that small differences between age groups’ responses may not be meaningfully different. In particular, differences of less than 10% may be due to chance.
Table 13. Beliefs about Animal Suffering by Age (U.S.)
Table 14. Attitudes toward Farmed Animal Welfare by Age (U.S.)
Table 15. Perceived Social Norms in Country by Age (U.S.)
Table 16. Support for Welfare Reform by Age (U.S.)
Table 17. Diet in the Past Year by Age (U.S.)
Table 18. Diet Change in the Last Three Months by Age (U.S.)
Results by Region in the U.S.
The tables below show the results for U.S. respondents by region. Note that small differences between regions’ responses may not be meaningfully different. In particular, differences of less than 10% may be due to chance.
Table 19. Beliefs about Animal Suffering by Region (U.S.)
Table 20. Attitudes toward Farmed Animal Welfare by Region (U.S.)
Table 21. Perceived Social Norms in Country by Region (U.S.)
Table 22. Support for Welfare Reform by Region (U.S.)
Table 23. Diet in the Past Year by Region (U.S.)